what is smps in computer

What is SMPS in Computer – Switch-Mode Power Supply

Do you know what is SMPS in Computer and what is the use of SMPS in Computer. In this article we are going to explore this topic with that I will also tell you the full form of SMPS.

There are many electronic appliances in our home. Refrigerator, TV, Washing Machine, Air Conditioner these are normal electronic gadget which can directly work on 220V. But your computer is too many differences from the above gadgets. Your computer will be burnt if you use it directly on 220V electricity. I am going to tell you how your computer works with high voltage and which part of your computer manages this all. Let explore the SMPS term –

What is SMPS in Computer?

What is the Full Form of SMPS?

The full form of SMPS stands for Switch Mode Power Supply. The main function of SMPS is to deliver the right amount of current to different parts of the Computer. Even though the full form of SMPS, we also call it Power Supply.

S – Switch
M – Mode
P – Power
S – Supply

what is smps in computer

This is the type of electronic circuit. It is already installed on your computer. If you noticed it you find it Cuboid shaped metal box. There are many different kinds of wire in it with some circuit plates and a transformer. There are many parts of the computer, this part delivers the right amount of current to the main different parts of your computer. It means this is the entrance for current to your computer. SMPS saves all parts of the computer from getting burnt by the high voltage.

Also Read – What is the full form of Google?

Let see the short working way of it. Your computer needs electricity to do work. You give the electricity connection to your computer from your home switches and that current is AC. First of all, SMPS convert that AC (Alternating Current) to DC (Direct Current). It uses a capacitor and DIODE to convert AC to DC. It gets help from the regulator to keep the switch ON for some time and keep the switch Off for some time. It means it is changing Switch Mode. Sometimes it converts DC to AC and sometimes AC to DC, hence we call it Switch Mode Power Supply.

SMPS also has a fan that is fixed at the inner backside of the SMPS. This fan works as same as the Exhaust fan in our kitchen. It means it blows out the hotter air from SMPS.

(Note – The electricity supply in your home is AC, on the other hand, the current supply from batteries is DC)

How does SMPS work?

Let start with the Alternating current of your home. You give the power to the computer from your switch point. First of all the current entries to SMPS. This current passes through many mini devices in SMPS. It uses NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient), Fuse, line Filter, PF Capacitor to filter your current. Now it gives the filtered output to Rectifier and Filter to convert totally. The Rectifier and Filter get help from Capacitor to convert AC to smooth DC. The output of this whole process is pure DC. Now it is given by switching transistor, here are two NPN transistor which gives more AC with help of switching cycle. Now this AC move for the final process named SM transformer, this process gives another DC output. So this is the primary working way of SMPS.

After that, it again captured by Rectifier and Filter. Rectifier and Filter again convert AC supply to smooth DC. The finalized output out after this process is found in three forms 12 volts, 5 volts, and 3 volts. This is the working story of primary and secondary circuit of SMPS.

An output supply of Rectifier and Filter from primary circuit connect with Output Starter Transformer and this connects with the main Starter. The Starter is connected with the Amplifier IC. Amplifier IC is the area where the whole process of management takes place. Amplifier IC has three important wires, the first is the green cable which does Power on, the second is the violet cable which gives the 5V direct current and the third is the gray cable which called Power Boot Cable.

These three output cables are connected to the Mother Board, the switching transistor, and the Amplifier IC are connected to the Driver. It is controlled with Amplifier IC. A wire comes from the Secondary Switching Circuit which indicates that the load is increasing, so at the same time, the Driver increases the process of switching ON/OFF of the Switching Transistor. And this keeps the voltage at a constant speed which is 12 volts, 5 volts, and 3 volts. This whole process is called Switching Mode Power Supply. When the green cable is powered ON, the Mother Board gets 12 volts, 5 volts, and 3 volts from SMPS. This is What is SMPS in a computer.

What is Direct Current and Alternating Current?

This is not the part of what is SMPS in a computer but still, this is also important to know about two types of current. Yes, there are two types of current –

  1. Alternating Current.
  2. Direct Current.
full form of smps

Current is the flow of Charge. In Alternating current the flow of charge is on both sides. It means if there is an Alternating current in the wire it flows both sides either negative to positive or positive to negative.

On the other hand, the Direct current can flow only in one direction and that is negative to positive. The best example for it is the battery which you use in your TV remote, If you place it with the wrong terminals it does not work. Your computer needs Direct Current flow, the device used to convert Ac to DC which is your SMPS. This is the most important part of your computer, without it your computer is not able to handle high current. Therefore this is a must to have SMPS on your computer.

Types of SMPS & Its uses

There are four types of SMPS available in computer and market. The circuit makes the difference in SMPS and divide it into four different types as mentioned below –

  1. DC to DC Converter
  2. Forward Converter
  3. Flyback Converter
  4. Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter

1. DC to DC Converter

This is one of the types of SMPS. DC to DC Converter used when you have DC input and need DC output. If you are getting a circuit from the battery or something other which gives output DC, in this case, you have to use this type of SMPS.

Your current enter with the help of High-Frequency Switch (15-50 Hz) in SMPS, now the current passes through Step Down Transformer, after that, it captured by Rectifier and Filter this is the end of the primary area of the transformer. With the help of Rectifier and Filter current enters the secondary area of the transformer. The secondary area includes the Output sensor, Isolation, Error AMP, and PWM Oscillator and returns to switch. Now the output goes out of the Voltage Power and divided into different parts. It is sent back to the switch one more time. To control the Voltage.

2. Forward Converter

This is normal type of SMPS and this available in maximum computers. It takes AC in input and gives DC in output. To convert from AC to DC, it has a Bridge Rectifier Diode. 220 volts from you home switch enter in it and first it captured by Rectifier and Filter then it goes to Inverter “Chopper”, after that it captured by Output Transformer and then Output Rectifier and Filter, after this process the current divided into two parts. The first current out via output to part of your computer and second current return into Inverter “Chopper” with the help of Chopper controller.

3. Flyback Converter

This is one another type of SMPS. It normally used in all CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp), LED (Liquid-Emitting Diode) and Electronic toys. When the switch is on, the Magnetic Field of the Inductor stores energy. When the switch is on, the energy output is empty in the Voltage Circuit. Duty Cycle determines the Output Voltage. This is the working way of Flyback Converter.

4. Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter

This is the easiest and basic converter that works over Flyback. At the time of conduction, the switching Transistor increases linearly from the transfer to a slope which is Vin/Lp.

These are the types of SMPS. There are different types of SMPS in a computer. Next we will see that same.

What is type of SMPS in computer?

As I have already mentioned that the Forward Converter is used in SMPS of computers. But there are also different types of Forward Converters available. They vary according to their modular system. The short term for SMPS is power supply. Let see the types of power supply in the computer as below –

  1. Non Modular Power Supply.
  2. Semi Modular Power Supply.
  3. Full Modular Power Supply.

1. Non Modular SMPS

As you know there are many wires are connected to the power supply. Normally CPU connectors, ATX connectors, SATA connectors are connected to the power supply, which means everything is connected with your power supply. Unfortunately, you can not disconnect a single supply. If you wish to remove any particular wire, you can not go ahead. According to its modular system, this type of SMPS is not costly. You need to take care of its wiring to keep the air flowing in your power supply.

2. Semi Modular SMPS

The benefit to use this type of power supply is you can remove the particular cable connections. But here are also some permanent connector which you can not remove if you wish to remove. Permanent connectors include ATX connectors and CPU connectors, in some cases, you can see some SATA cables are also permanently connected. You can not remove it. This is also not much costly because some of the cables are permanently attached to it, you can not remove them as per your requirement.

3. Full Modular SMPS

I hope you have got the idea about it from its name. Yes, we can remove all cables from this type of power supply. Everything CPU connector, ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended) connectors, SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) connectors, PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) connector, and much more you can remove in case of Full Modular Power Supply. Here you can remove every cable from this type of SMPS. This is available in the market at a high price but there are many benefits to use it. There is no worry with wiring just remove and attached.

Important Connectors of SMPS

1. 20 or 24 Pin Connector

This is one of the Mother Bother Connector and it provides 12 volts power to Mother Board. To make connection more strong this Connector use ATX SMPS 20 and ATX SMPS 24 pins. 20 and 24 use to connect directly with Mother Board.

2. 4+4 CPU Connector

This type of Connectors used in the CPU, which use 4 Pins to make connection. These all 4 pins out the output of 12 volts.

3. SATA Connector

As you know every computer has HDD (Hard Disk) and DVD ROM (Digital Versatile Disk-Read Only Memory). This Connector provides power to HDD and DVD ROM.

Final Words

I hope you like this article and you may have learned something new. I hope this information works for you. Today you learned many new things as what is SMPS in the computer? The full form of SMPS and what is the use of SMPS in computers? Also, I have mentioned much more full form along with the full form of SMPS too. SMPS is a very important part of the computer, the CPU is the brain of the computer and SMPS is mouth of the computer.

If you like this article don’t forget to share it with your friends. If you have any questions feel free to ask me in comment below.

Thanks for reading.

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