What is the Full Form of SMPS?
The full form of SMPS is Switch Mode Power Supply. The main function of SMPS is to deliver the right amount of current to different parts of the Computer. It is also known as Power Supply.
When you give power to the computer, then that electricity is in AC form. SMPS converts AC to DC with the help of Capacitors and Diodes. This process has to be switched on and off, it does this work with the help of a regulator. Therefore it is called Switch Mode Power Supply.
S – Switch
M – Mode
P – Power
S – Supply
Structure of SMPS
SMPS is the type of electronic circuit installed in a Cuboid-shaped metal box. There are many different kinds of wires in it with some circuit plates and a transformer. It delivers the right amount of current to the different parts of the computer. SMPS saves all parts of the computer from getting burnt by the high voltage.
SMPS also has a fan that is fixed at the inner backside of the SMPS. This fan works as same as the Exhaust fan in our kitchen. It means it blows out the hotter air from SMPS.
(Note – The electricity supply in your home is AC, and the current supply from batteries is DC)
How does an SMPS work?
The electricity enters to computer via SMPS. It uses NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient), Fuse, line filter, PF Capacitor to filter current. Now it gives the filtered output to Rectifier and Filter to convert totally. The Rectifier and Filter get help from Capacitor to convert AC to smooth DC. The output of this whole process is pure DC. Now it is given by switching transistor, here are two NPN transistor which gives more AC with help of switching cycle. Now this AC move for the final process named SM transformer, this process gives another DC output. So this is the primary working way of SMPS.
After that, it is again captured by Rectifier and Filter. Rectifier and Filter again convert AC supply to smooth DC. The finalized output out after this process is found in three forms 12 volts, 5 volts, and 3 volts. This is the working story of the primary and secondary circuits of SMPS.
An output supply of Rectifier and Filter from primary circuit connect with Output Starter Transformer and this connects with the main Starter. The Starter is connected with the Amplifier IC. Amplifier IC is the area where the whole process of management takes place. Amplifier IC has three important wires, the first is the green cable which does Power on, the second is violet cable which gives the 5V direct current and the third is the gray cable which is called Power Boot Cable.
These three output cables are connected to the Mother Board, the switching transistor, and the Amplifier IC are connected to the Driver. It is controlled with Amplifier IC. A wire comes from the Secondary Switching Circuit which indicates that the load is increasing, so at the same time, the Driver increases the process of switching On/Off of the Switching Transistor. And this keeps the voltage at a constant speed which is 12 volts, 5 volts, and 3 volts. This whole process is called Switching Mode Power Supply. When the green cable is powered On, the Mother Board gets 12 volts, 5 volts, and 3 volts from SMPS. This is What is SMPS in a computer.
Direct Current and Alternating Current
This is not the part of what is SMPS in a computer but still, this is also important to know about two types of current. Yes, there are two types of current –
- Alternating Current.
- Direct Current.
Current is the flow of Charge. In Alternating current the flow of charge is on both sides. It means if there is an Alternating current in the wire it flows both sides either negative to positive or positive to negative.
On the other hand, the Direct current can flow only in one direction and that is negative to positive. The best example for it is the battery which you use in your TV remote, If you place it with the wrong terminals it does not work. Your computer needs Direct Current flow, the device used to convert Ac to DC which is your SMPS. This is the most important part of your computer, without it your computer is not able to handle high current. Therefore this is a must to have SMPS on your computer.
Also read | Three phase transformer connection
Type of SMPS in the computer?
As I have already mentioned that the Forward Converter is used in SMPS of computers. But there are also different types of Forwarding Converters available. They vary according to their modular system. The short term for SMPS is power supply. Let see the types of power supply in the computer as below –
1. Non-Modular SMPS
As you know there are many wires are connected to the power supply. Normally CPU connectors, ATX connectors, SATA connectors are connected to the power supply, which means everything is connected with your power supply. Unfortunately, you can not disconnect a single supply. If you wish to remove any particular wire, you can not go ahead. According to its modular system, this type of SMPS is not costly. You need to take care of its wiring to keep the air flowing in your power supply.
2. Semi Modular SMPS
The benefit to use this type of power supply is you can remove the particular cable connections. But here are also some permanent connector which you can not remove if you wish to remove. Permanent connectors include ATX connectors and CPU connectors, in some cases, you can see some SATA cables are also permanently connected. You can not remove it. This is also not much costly because some of the cables are permanently attached to it, you can not remove them as per your requirement.
3. Full Modular SMPS
I hope you have got the idea about it from its name. Yes, we can remove all cables from this type of power supply. Everything CPU connector, ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended) connectors, SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) connectors, PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) connector, and much more you can remove in case of Full Modular Power Supply. Here you can remove every cable from this type of SMPS. This is available in the market at a high price but there are many benefits to use it. There is no worry with wiring just remove and attached.
Important Connectors of SMPS
1. 20 or 24 Pin Connector
This is one of the Mother Bother Connectors and it provides 12 volts of power to Mother Board. To make the connection more strong this Connector uses ATX SMPS 20 and ATX SMPS 24 pins. 20 and 24 use to connect directly with Mother Board.
2. 4+4 CPU Connector
This type of connector is used in the CPU, which uses 4 Pins to make the connection. These all 4 pins out the output of 12 volts.
3. SATA Connector
As you know every computer has HDD (Hard Disk) and DVD ROM (Digital Versatile Disk-Read Only Memory). This Connector provides power to HDD and DVD ROM.
Also read – IMEI full form
I hope you like this article and you may have learned something new. I hope this information works for you. Today you learned many new things as what is SMPS in the computer? The full form of SMPS and what is the use of SMPS in computers? Also, I have mentioned much more full form along with the full form of SMPS too. SMPS is a very important part of the computer, the CPU is the brain of the computer and SMPS is the mouth of the computer.
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Thanks for reading.